SpringBoot 中使用 Hibernate

概述

Hibernate是一个开放源代码的对象关系映射框架,它对JDBC进行了非常轻量级的对象封装,它将POJO与数据库表建立映射关系,
是一个全自动的orm框架,hibernate可以自动生成SQL语句,自动执行,使得Java程序员可以随心所欲的使用对象编程思维来操纵数据库。 
Hibernate可以应用在任何使用JDBC的场合,既可以在Java的客户端程序使用,也可以在Servlet/JSP的Web应用中使用,
最具革命意义的是,Hibernate可以在应用EJB的JaveEE架构中取代CMP,完成数据持久化的重任。

表结构

创建名为 hibernate 数据库,执行以下 sql 语句创建 user 表。

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CREATE TABLE `user` (
`id` int(11) NOT NULL,
`name` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
`pwd` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

Maven 项目结构

spring-boot-demo
│  .gitignore
│  pom.xml
│  README.md
│
├─spring-boot-hibernate
│  │  .gitignore
│  │  pom.xml
│  │
│  ├─src
│  │  ├─main
│  │  │  ├─java
│  │  │  │  └─com
│  │  │  │      └─example
│  │  │  │          └─hibernate
│  │  │  │              │  SpringBootHibernateApplication.java
│  │  │  │              │
│  │  │  │              ├─config
│  │  │  │              │      DataSourceConfig.java
│  │  │  │              │
│  │  │  │              ├─dao
│  │  │  │              │  │  UserDao.java
│  │  │  │              │  │
│  │  │  │              │  └─common
│  │  │  │              │          BaseDao.java
│  │  │  │              │          BaseDaoImpl.java
│  │  │  │              │          Page.java
│  │  │  │              │
│  │  │  │              └─entity
│  │  │  │                      User.java
│  │  │  │
│  │  │  └─resources
│  │  │          application.properties
│  │  │
│  │  └─test
│  │      └─java
│  │          └─com
│  │              └─example
│  │                  └─hibernate
│  │                          SpringBootHibernateApplicationTests.java
│
└─spring-boot-mongodb

Pom.xml 依赖配置

  • spring-boot-demo
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 https://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
<parent>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
<version>2.7.2</version>
<relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
</parent>
<packaging>pom</packaging>

<modules>
<module>spring-boot-mongodb</module>
</modules>

<groupId>com.example</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-demo</artifactId>
<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
<name>spring-boot-demo</name>
<description>spring-boot-demo</description>
<properties>
<java.version>1.8</java.version>
</properties>
<dependencies>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
<groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
<artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
<optional>true</optional>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
<groupId>cn.hutool</groupId>
<artifactId>hutool-all</artifactId>
<version>5.8.5</version>
</dependency>

<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.apache.commons/commons-lang3 -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
<artifactId>commons-lang3</artifactId>
<version>3.8.1</version>
</dependency>

</dependencies>
<build>
<plugins>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
<configuration>
<excludes>
<exclude>
<groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
<artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
</exclude>
</excludes>
</configuration>
</plugin>
</plugins>
</build>

</project>

  • spring-boot-hibernate
    • 导入 hibernate 核心的对象关系映射(简称ORM)功能的包
    • 导入使用 hibernate 实现 java 持久化接口(简称JPA)的包
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 https://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
<parent>
<groupId>com.example</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-boot-demo</artifactId>
<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
</parent>
<artifactId>spring-boot-hibernate</artifactId>
<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
<name>spring-boot-hibernate</name>
<description>spring-boot-hibernate</description>
<properties>
<java.version>1.8</java.version>
</properties>
<dependencies>
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.hibernate.javax.persistence/hibernate-jpa-2.1-api -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.hibernate.javax.persistence</groupId>
<artifactId>hibernate-jpa-2.1-api</artifactId>
<version>1.0.2.Final</version>
</dependency>
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.hibernate/hibernate-core -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
<artifactId>hibernate-core</artifactId>
<version>5.6.9.Final</version>
</dependency>

<dependency>
<groupId>mysql</groupId>
<artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
<scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>

<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.springframework/spring-orm -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-orm</artifactId>
<version>5.3.22</version>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
</project>

Application.properties 配置

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spring.datasource.username=root
spring.datasource.password=root
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/hibernate?serverTimezone=UTC&setUnicode=true&charterEncoding=utf-8
spring.datasource.driver-class-name=com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver

Entity 对象

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package com.example.hibernate.entity;

import javax.persistence.*;

/**
* @author loquy
*/
@Entity
@Table(name = "user")
public class User {

@Id
private int id;

private String name;

private String pwd;

public User() {
}

public User(int id, String name, String pwd) {
this.id = id;
this.name = name;
this.pwd = pwd;
}

public String getName() {
return name;
}

public void setName(String name) {
this.name = name;
}

public String getPwd() {
return pwd;
}

public void setPwd(String pwd) {
this.pwd = pwd;
}

@Override
public String toString() {
return "User{" +
"id=" + id +
", name='" + name + '\'' +
", pwd='" + pwd + '\'' +
'}';
}
}

DataSource 数据源配置

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package com.example.hibernate.config;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.jdbc.datasource.DriverManagerDataSource;

import java.util.Properties;

/**
* @author loquy
*/
@Configuration
public class DataSourceConfig {

@Value("${spring.datasource.url}")
private String dbUrl;

@Value("${spring.datasource.username}")
private String username;

@Value("${spring.datasource.password}")
private String password;

@Value("${spring.datasource.driver-class-name}")
private String driverClassName;

@Bean(name = "datasource")
public DriverManagerDataSource dataSource() {
DriverManagerDataSource dataSource = new DriverManagerDataSource();
dataSource.setDriverClassName(driverClassName);
dataSource.setUrl(dbUrl);
dataSource.setUsername(username);
dataSource.setPassword(password);

Properties propertiesJpa = new Properties();
dataSource.setConnectionProperties(propertiesJpa);
return dataSource;
}
}

Dao 层封装 CRUD

JPA 实体管理器(EntityManager)

实体管理器(EntityManager)用于管理系统中的实体,它是实体与数据库之间的桥梁,
通过调用实体管理器的相关方法可以把实体持久化到数据库中,
同时也可以把数据库中的记录打包成实体对象。

配置好数据源后可以通过 @PersistenceContext 注解注入 EntityManager 到上下文里管理实体,也可以执行原始的sql查询语句。
详情查看此教程 JPA 实体管理器

通用 BaseDao

  • BaseDao
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package com.example.hibernate.dao.common;


import java.util.List;

/**
* The interface Base dao.
*
* @author loquy
*/
public interface BaseDao<T> {

/**
* Insert.
*
* @param model the model
*/
void insert(Object model);

/**
* Update t.
*
* @param entity the entity
* @return the t
*/
T update(T entity);

/**
* Delete.
*
* @param model the model
*/
void delete(Object model);

/**
* Find one t.
*

* @param primaryKey the primary key
* @return the t
*/
T findOne(Object primaryKey);

/**
* Find all list.
*

* @return the list
*/
List<T> findAll();

/**
* 获取查询列表
*
* @param queryStr the query str

* @return 返回的是list<Entity> 对象
*/
List<T> getNativeQueryList(final String queryStr);

/**
* 获取查询分页列表
*
* @param queryStr the query str
* @param page the page

* @return 返回的是Page<list<Entity>> 对象
*/
Page<T> getNativeQueryListByPage(String queryStr, Page<T> page);

}

  • BaseDaoImpl
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package com.example.hibernate.dao.common;

import cn.hutool.core.bean.BeanUtil;
import org.hibernate.query.internal.NativeQueryImpl;
import org.hibernate.transform.Transformers;
import org.springframework.util.Assert;

import javax.persistence.EntityManager;
import javax.persistence.NoResultException;
import javax.persistence.PersistenceContext;
import javax.persistence.Query;
import java.math.BigDecimal;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

/**
* @author loquy
*/
public class BaseDaoImpl<T> implements BaseDao<T> {

@PersistenceContext
private EntityManager entityManager;

private final Class<T> entityClass;

public BaseDaoImpl(Class<T> entityClass) {
this.entityClass = entityClass;
}

@Override
public void insert(Object model) {
this.entityManager.persist(model);
}

@Override
public T update(T entity) {
return entityManager.merge(entity);
}

@Override
public void delete(Object model) {
this.entityManager.remove(model);
}

@Override
public T findOne(Object primaryKey) {
return entityManager.find(entityClass, primaryKey);
}

@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public List<T> findAll() {
return this.entityManager.createQuery("select obj from " + entityClass.getName() + " obj").getResultList();
}

/**
* 获取查询列表
*
* @return 返回的是list<Entity>对象
*/
@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public List<T> getNativeQueryList(final String queryStr) {
Query query = createNativeQuery(queryStr);
query.unwrap(NativeQueryImpl.class).setResultTransformer(Transformers.ALIAS_TO_ENTITY_MAP);
List<T> tmpResult = query.getResultList();
List<T> result = new ArrayList<>();
for (Object object : tmpResult) {
result.add(BeanUtil.toBean(object, entityClass));
}
return result;
}

/**
* 获取查询分页列表
*
* @return 返回的是Page<list<Entity>> 对象
*/
@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public Page<T> getNativeQueryListByPage(String queryStr, Page<T> page) {
queryStr += page.getOrderString();

Query query = createNativeQuery(queryStr);
query.unwrap(NativeQueryImpl.class).setResultTransformer(Transformers.ALIAS_TO_ENTITY_MAP);

int totalCount = countSqlResult(queryStr).intValue();
page.setTotalCount(totalCount);
if (totalCount == 0) {
return page;
}
setPageParameter(query, page);
List<T> tmpResult = query.getResultList();
List<T> result = new ArrayList<>();
for (Object object : tmpResult) {
result.add(BeanUtil.toBean(object, entityClass));
}
page.setResult(result);
return page;
}

/**
* 统计条数
*
*/
protected Long countSqlResult(final String sql) {
String countHql = "select count(*) from (" + sql + ") count";
try {
String valueStr = createNativeQuery(countHql).getSingleResult().toString();
return new BigDecimal(valueStr.trim()).longValue();
} catch (NoResultException e) {
return 0L;
} catch (Exception e) {
throw new RuntimeException("sql can't be auto count, sql is:" + countHql, e);
}
}


private Query createNativeQuery(final String queryString, Object... params) {
Assert.hasText(queryString, "queryString can not empty");
Query query;
query = entityManager.createNativeQuery(queryString);
if (params != null) {
for (int i = 0; i < params.length; i++) {
query.setParameter(i + 1, params[i]);
}
}
return query;
}

/**
* 设置分页参数
*
*/
protected void setPageParameter(final Query q, final Page<T> page) {
q.setFirstResult(page.getOffset());
q.setMaxResults(page.getLimit());
}
}

  • Page
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package com.example.hibernate.dao.common;

import org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils;

import java.io.Serializable;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

/**
* @author loquy
*/
public class Page<T> implements Serializable {

private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

private final int limit;

private int offset;

private final int currentPage;

private List<T> result = new ArrayList<>();

private int totalCount = 0;

private String sortField;

private int totalPage = 0;

public Page(Integer page, Integer limit) {
this.currentPage = page - 1;
this.limit = limit;
}

public int getOffset() {
if (offset == 0) {
this.offset = currentPage * limit;
}
return offset;
}

public int getLimit() {
return limit;
}

public List<T> getResult() {
return result;
}

public void setResult(final List<T> result) {
this.result = result;
}

public int getTotalCount() {
return totalCount;
}

public void setTotalCount(final int totalCount) {
this.totalCount = totalCount;
this.totalPage = this.totalCount / this.limit;
if (totalCount % limit > 0) {
this.totalPage++;
}
}

public int getTotalPage() {
return totalPage;
}

public void setSortField(String sortField) {
this.sortField = sortField;
}

public String getOrderString() {
String orderString = "";
if (StringUtils.isNotBlank(sortField)) {
orderString = " order by " + sortField;
}
return orderString;
}
}

业务 UserDao

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package com.example.hibernate.dao;

import com.example.hibernate.dao.common.BaseDaoImpl;
import com.example.hibernate.entity.User;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Repository;

/**
* @author loquy
*/
@Repository
public class UserDao extends BaseDaoImpl<User> {
public UserDao() {
super(User.class);
}
}

测试

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package com.example.hibernate;

import com.example.hibernate.dao.UserDao;
import com.example.hibernate.dao.common.Page;
import com.example.hibernate.entity.User;
import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;

import javax.transaction.Transactional;
import java.util.List;

@SpringBootTest
@Transactional
class SpringBootHibernateApplicationTests {

@Autowired
public UserDao userDao;

@Test
void contextLoads() {
User one = userDao.findOne(1);

System.out.println("========");
System.out.println(one);
if (one != null) {
userDao.delete(one);
}

User user = new User(1, "insert", "insert");
userDao.insert(user);
List<User> all = userDao.findAll();

System.out.println("========");
for (User user1 : all) {
System.out.println(user1.toString());
}

user.setName("update");
user.setPwd("update");
User update = userDao.update(user);

System.out.println("========");
System.out.println(update);

List<User> nativeQueryList = userDao.getNativeQueryList("select * from user");
System.out.println("========");
System.out.println(nativeQueryList);

Page<User> page = new Page<>(1, 10);
page.setSortField("id");
Page<User> nativeQueryListByPage = userDao.getNativeQueryListByPage("select * from user", page);
System.out.println("========");
System.out.println(nativeQueryListByPage.getResult());
System.out.println(nativeQueryListByPage.getTotalCount());
System.out.println(nativeQueryListByPage.getTotalPage());
System.out.println(nativeQueryListByPage.getOrderString());
}

}

输出

源码

参见此仓库


SpringBoot 中使用 Hibernate
http://www.loquy.cn/fb332309.html
作者
loquy
发布于
2022年8月11日
许可协议